TO WHAT EXTENT IS ETHICAL TO ABORT?

The abortion debate asks if it can be morally right to terminate a pregnancy before normal childbirth.

Some people think that abortion is always wrong. Some think that abortion is right when the mother’s life is at risk. Others think that there is a range of circumstances in which abortion is morally acceptable.

Because of this controversial topic, many ethical questions appear

Should abortion be outlawed and treated like the murder of a human person, or remain a legal choice available to all women?

It is wrong to kill innocent human being? Fetuses are innocent human beings?And many other ones.

And many other ones.

would not be ethical to force the birth of children who are unwanted and cannot be cared for. Women who choose to abort when they cannot be good mothers are making the most ethical choice open to them.

There are a range of moral and ethical issues which may arise about unplanned pregnancy
and abortion. it needs to be consider the  woman’s right to make her own
decision about her pregnancy, based on her unique circumstances, in relation to her own
personal values.
I think ethics can be related to abortion, because it is a choice whether to abort or not.
It is related with decision making.

Definition of Abortion =  deliberate removal (or deliberate action to cause the expulsion) of a fetus from the womb of a human female, at the request of or through the agency of the mother, so as in fact to result in the death of the fetus.

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To what extent can censorship create a determined perspective towards a topic, based on people’s lack of knowledge?

Censorship is a powerful tool. In today’s society the easiness to access and find information is highly remarkable. We are surrounded  by many vast resources that provide us information.  Media, books and other ways of  communication, which are extremely developed these days, are able to control to an extent societies knowledge. Due to this reality the following question  starts to be wondered “To what extent can censorship create a   determined perspective towards a topic, based on people’s lack of knowledge?”

Considering the fact that there’s no way we can know information, if we haven’t   been told,  shown evidence about it, or have perceived it ourselves, i expose the next example. In a situation in which certain information about a topic has been censored, therefore, never reached people’s knowledge, these people live oblivious to that information. Thus, when it comes the time to determine their own perspective towards the given topic, people will have just a portion of the information, hence they will not be able to come up with an objective point of view based on facts and total knowledge of a subject.

When people aren’t  given all the information about something, their opinion may easily be manipulated, as there’s a lack of details and the opinions are not objective, in order for people to believe whatever interests those who control the information.

A clear example of this are dictatorships. In many countries, specially in asia, there are many dictatorships given, in which, the governors censor information about other countries, or other political situations, in order to make citizens believe that the situation they live  is the best one, and therefore try to make people never revolt.

In the previous example we observe how, the lack of information about life itself in other countries,(knowledge about this topic) caused because of censorship, generates a popular non objective nor real opinion, that has easily been manipulated. Therefore, yes, censorship and not knowing may cause, a defaulted perspective and opinion towards a topic, because of it being not objective, or being manipulated, and even generating a reaction on people.

To what extent should Ethics be a part of politics?

The recent US elections have shown that a candidate’s moral code plays a big part in who chooses to vote for them. As a matter of fact, the media seemed to represent the elections not as a conflict between two politicians and their economical policies, but rather as an ethical matter. This has made many disregard the actual policies of either candidate and focus only on their ethical values, which may have disastrous consequences for the country should either candidate rely only on ethical regulations to govern.

This does not mean, of course, that ethics should not play a part in elections at all. There are many topics up for debate that each candidate should be able to have an opinion about. However, in these elections the involvement of ethics has been extreme. So extreme, in fact, that there were those who could not vote for a certain candidate without losing basic rights. Here is an example of my point. The next piece is directly taken from Donald Trump’s official web page:

No gay marriage; no same-sex partner benefits

On Thursday, Trump talked about “exploring” a presidential run, and was asked if he supports “allowing same-sex couples to marry.”

Trump said “no,” but didn’t stop there. When asked whether gay couples should have access to “the same benefits as married couples,” the mogul initially replied that his attitude on the issue was not yet “fully formed.”

After thinking about it for a moment, however, Trump said: “As of this moment, I would say no and no” to gay marriage and civil benefits.

That answer may have resonated with Iowa conservatives who overwhelmingly opposed the Iowa Supreme Court’s 2009 decision to overturn the state’s gay marriage ban. But not in New York, home to one of the largest gay and lesbian communities in the US.

Trump was traveling Sunday and could not be reached for comment. Through a spokesman, he said only: “I’m opposed to gay marriage.”

(http://www.ontheissues.org/celeb/Donald_Trump_Civil_Rights.htm)

After reading this, any gay person could not vote for Trump, no matter how much they agree with his policies, because they know that they would lose a basic right that everyone should have. And politicians are not elected to tamper with their people’s rights, but to take care of the social, political and economical situation of a country.

In conclusion, Ethics should definitely be a part of politics, but never to a point where they compromise the basic rights of any person or group.

What role does emotional knowledge play in ethics?

Ethics is a system of moral principles. It determines what is good for society, so its basis is mostly set in empathy. Specialist in this area determine what is moral or not by imagining how people would feel in different situations, which certainly involves imagination, but does it involve emotion too?

We talked about this in the last TOK lesson and while we were discussing it a question came up to my mind: what about the role of emotion when being empathetic?

Emotion is the knowledge we gain through feelings. We know something is good because we feel happy about it, we may hate rainy days because we get bored then, we know we love our parents because we experiment that feeling…

Since ethics aim is making people happy (which is one of the six main emotions), the way people feel must be essential in this AOK.

Let’s get an example to try to understand this question. Were philosophers to question themselves whether giving money to charity is moral or not, they would imagine themselves suffering the situations poor people deal with. Imagination would be required. However, the “motor” of their decision are feelings. Feeling empathy for people means understanding their feelings, being able to experiment them imaginarily. Nonetheless, how can we feel sad for the poor if we have never felt sad?

To sum up, I consider emotion a vital source to get to ethical conclusions, even other ways of knowing such as imagination or reason are also required. Specifically in the example of empathy, emotional knowledge is a really important information to bear in mind.

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How are Ethics involved in advertising?

It is undeniable that nowadays ethics play a crucial part in business activities. Businesses who do not have an ethical behaviour will undoubtedly lose customers, since many refuse to buy from those who do not follow a strict ethical code. Especially in today’s world, where technology makes their decisions visible to all, businesses must be careful and behave ethically in order to make the public view them positively. Without a good reputation, very few businesses would be able to survive.

But ethical behaviour does not only apply to the condition of the workers, or to how many projects the business may have started for charity. In fact, the most prominent way of showing ethical behaviour is through advertising. A business’s advertisements are essential to the image the business wants to provide, since they are the first, and many times the only, image customers have in mind when buying their products.

This can be clearly seen in discriminatory advertising. For example, Nivea’s ad featuring a black man with the slogan “Re-civilize yourself” had huge backlash on social media, and the company even had to issue a formal apology stating that it was not their intention to send a racist message in order to maintain their image.

However, the implications of ethics in advertising can also be used to a business’s advantage. For example, the company MO, that sells glasses, recently created and ad with the theme of accepting oneself as one is. This is a value that society strives to achieve, so the company is appealing to all those who support the notion, and therefore gaining customers.

Yet another example of using advertising to show a business’s values is Principe’s advertisement: “El héroe que llevan dentro”. In it, some children are performing a play where the girl is playing a princess who must be saved from a dragon by a knight in shining armour. However, after eating the cookies, she jumps into the battle and saves herself. The company uses the stereotypes in fairytales and turns them around in order to show how both men and women can “be the hero”. Especially considering all the social movements advocating for equal rights for every sex, this ad is a very smart move that makes the ethical code of the business quite clear, and gives a good image of it.

So to sum up, ethics play a massive part in advertising, since businesses need to behave ethically in order to have a good reputation and keep their customers, and advertising is the main image of a business that the public has. Therefore, businesses can use advertising to make their moral code clear and appeal to customers.

Should we be able to decide who dies or lives?

‘Let my husband die’: Wife, 40, begs judges to let her policeman partner’s life support machine be turned off after he suffered brain injuries in a motorcycle crash – despite doctors saying he should live. (Title of an article in the Daily Mail.)

We have seen in many movies or heard stories of people who has dieds because of euthanasia. There have been many disputes of wheter this should be legal or not.

In my opinion, we should not have the power to decide who dies or lives. For example, if we kill a murderer, we will become a murderer without exception. People will say that it is ok to end the life of someone who has killed, but why can someone decide who lifes or dies? Who has the power to say that? If you kill a person, you are ending his/her life without exception.

It would only be acceptable if the person you want to “kill” is suffering from a terminal illness, in my opinion. If you can make that person, who you love, stop suffering from something that will end up killing him/her, and you are sure of that, finishing his/her life would be the best option.

In the other hand, killing someone because that person has done something wrong is unethical. For example, in prison. Eventhough euthanasia is not legal in every country, there are hundreds of deaths in a year because of it. Death is not always the best penalty, I think that being in prison for the rest of your life is a better punishment that euthanasia. The person being punished will suffer a lot more and will have more time to think over what he/she has done wrong.

A real exaple would be one I saw in The Daily Mail. A woman wanted to disconnect his husband´s life support machine. The husband had a terrible accident that caused him to be in this condition. ” They say he is unable to speak, make any informed decisions or and has no independent control of his body – but could live for the best part of a decade if kept alive with treatment. His wife has decided to switch off the machine so he can die with “dignity”, despite that her hunsband could get better.

This example shows us that we should not have the authority to disconnect someone from life. The emotions and the moment can make you take wrong decisions that you will regret the rest of your life. So to be able to make such a decision, everything should be taken into account; from the situation to tour emotions.

Mail Online. (2016). Wife, 40, begs judges to let her husband’s life support be turned off. [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3975468/Let-husband-die-Wife-40-begs-judges-let-policeman-partner-s-life-support-machine-turned-suffered-brain-injuries-motorcycle-crash-despite-doctors-saying-live.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2016].
Aica.org. (2016). AICA: Ola de muertes por eutanasia en el mundo. [online] Available at: http://www.aica.org/8135-ola-de-muertes-por-eutanasia-en-el-mundo.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2016].

To what extent are social networks affecting our studies?

Nowadays everyone is connected to one another all the time. In the past, communication between people was more restricted by distance or nationality, but these days this obstacles are not a problem any more.

We like to be part of a group and we are constantly following and doing what that group does, this is our nature, and this is one reason why we always want to be connected, to know what the rest of group is doing.

We have been said that being part of a social website will give you opportunities and that it is essential in order to get a job. But maybe being part of these can just give you  bad image. When we are older and we apply to get a job, the person in charge of the interview will surely look you up in social websites, and what he/she sees in the internet will be the first impression that person will have of you, this impression can be goos or bad, that is up to us.

But how does social networks affect our studies? One of the most important things of a student are studying, learning new things and acquiring knowledge to become  better people. But nowadays, the process to gain this basis is put in risk by all the social networks that surround sudents.

It is true that the internet will be the future one day, but students still need to have some moral principles that will not gain through the internet but through experience.

Social networks are designed to be addicted, and being addicted to them can cause bad habits in the students  and this can have a impact in their work in the future. But, eventhough, these networks can have a bad impact in students, they also help them be in contact with the rest of the world.

 

 

 

Abhishek Karadkar, C. (2016). The impact of social media on student life. [online] Technician. Available at: http://www.technicianonline.com/opinion/article_d1142b70-5a92-11e5-86b4-cb7c98a6e45f.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2016].
Newport, C. (2016). La distracción de las redes sociales está afectando tu carrera. Desconéctate. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/es/2016/11/25/la-distraccion-de-las-redes-sociales-esta-afectando-tu-carrera-desconectate/?rref=collection%2Fsectioncollection%2Findex [Accessed 27 Nov. 2016].

To what extent does faith change the way of seeing reality?

Nowadays there are some controversial opinions about some religions since sometimes radical acts happen and the people in charge of doing those acts use the faith to justify themselves.

So this radical and violent acts are not tolerated by most of the population, even the ones that profess the same religion.

Anyway this are only exceptions but tremendously harmful. This is why we have to be careful because currently young people´s minds are vulnerable and influenciable.

But well-used and assumed faith does not change the way we see life, but it makes us lead tlife in a more generous way by accepting the good and the bad with naturalness and adding positiveness to our lifes.

So, all in all, faith does not change the way of seeing realitiy. Faith is basically a point of support that helps people to have strength and hope and continue forward since the believe that they in the end they will have a reward.

To what extent has technology deshumanize society?

In this past few years, technology has developed incredibly fast. Due to this a huge number of the population make use of it. But currently in  my opinion,people are not using it as it is supposed to be.

I understand that it is very attractive and innovating but most of the people are not aware of technology´s disadvantages.

A very close example is: A few years ago  parents had to “force” their children to enter their homes as they spent the day outside playing. However now they have to tell them all the time to go out to the street since they spend the day playing with any video game.

With this I just want to say that we are not realising how technlogy is changing our lifestyle and even our way of being.

So in my opinion we should reconsider the way in which we use technology. Because when we will want to realise it will be too late.

Is it possible to acquire knowledge through music?

Last weekend I was listening to the song “Where is the love?” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FotCW5OIFZc) with my friends and one of them asked what the KKK was. I knew it was the Ku Klux Klan because I learnt it in my History class and so I told her. However, if you paid attention to the lyrics you could guess it was a racist organization in the USA, which is basically its definition.

In the USA, the big CIA fighting

The Bloods and The Crips and the KKK

But if you only have love for your own race

Then you only leave space to discriminate”1

This situation led me to this blogpost question “Is it actually possible to acquire knowledge through music?”. The truth is music “is an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color”1. If music is an art which expresses ideas, then knowledge must be shared from the author to the listener. This means the listener acquires knowledge by listening to songs.

Nonetheless, you can also obtain information without paying attention to the lyrics. The most important elements of music (rhythm, melody…) also transmit ideas normally related to emotions. For example, sad songs often have a slow rhythm, words are pronounced in a long way and there are normally stops in between verses. Just by listening to this you could determine whether the song is sad or happy, whether it is demanding and complaining or thanking…  Besides, since music expresses the author’s feelings, you could know how the author felt when composing the song thus you’d be acquiring knowledge.

After having analyzed the ways knowledge can be transmitted through songs, I consider you can definitely gain knowledge by listening to music and, moreover, I believe songs transmit even more than words.

  1. Dictionary.com. (2016). the definition of music. [online] Available at: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/music [Accessed 20 Nov. 2016].