To what extent is ethical an abortion?

When I came up with this questions I figure out that the best I could do was to research specifically what an abortion was and the circunstantes than can take place to promote an abortion.

As wikipedia states, an abortion can be definen as various things such as as fetus or embryo removed or expelled from the uterus during the first half of gestation 20 weeks or less, or in the absence of accurate dating criteria, born weighing less than500 g or  the termination of a pregnancy, whether spontaneous or induced.

In either cases taking into accounts if the fetes is replaced spontaneously or induce has an ethical matter and takes into account the life of a new person.

The issue comes in mind depending on the situation of course that the mother has passed to get pregnant like for example in a rape because in that case it will be giving birth to a child that she did not want to have but as an ethical overview killing a child for no particular reason it is not ethically and philosophically.

In my opinion, I will say and experts will consider reviewing the situation to see what is the main issue like being pregnant to young, having another father kid or even getting raped to after that take the decision to give birth or not.

I will personally would not even think about the posibilllity of killing a child just because of ethical reasons but also because my religion would not forgive that but even so, this case inquires lots of subtopics that will have to be studied to see to what extent this situation is ethically correct or not.




To what extent is Memory reliable?

Every day, every minute, even right now, we are using our Ways of Knowing to perceive and understand the world around us. The Ways of Knowing are our only tools in our endless search for knowledge, so we must always make sure that they are ready to be used in order to obtain true, correct knowledge. We use glasses to correct our sight or pills to improve our memory.

However, no matter how much we try to polish our Ways of Knowing, they will never be perfect. Every Way of Knowing is imperfect in one way or another, and may lead to error. One in particular can be especially faulty: Memory. When creating new memories, our neurons create new connections, called synapses, in order to encode the memory. These new connections are then stored and established again when it is recalled. However, every time we recall a memory, we add slight variations to it: perhaps, that one time I fell off my bike, there was actually a cat on the road that startled me and made me fall. The real problem comes when the original memory is erased and this new memory is stored instead.

And not only do we alter memories, we can also forget them completely. For example, many rape victims block their memories of the attack completely, and cannot recall them without the help of a psychologist, because they are too painful. Sometimes we even make up new ones. A study by the PNAS (Proceeedings of the National Academy of Sciences), conducted by Lawrence Patihis of the University of California, Irvine, subjected two groups of people (some with ordinary memory and others with highly superior autobiographical memory) to the same test in order to see whether there were people who were immune to false memories. While talking about the 9/11 terrorist attack, footage of United Flight 93 crashing in Pennsylvania was mentioned; footage that actually did not exist. However, when asked about it later, at least 1 in 5 people in each group was convinced they had seen it. This proves that we can most definitely create false memories, and that nobody is immune to them.

So, if our memories truly are unreliable, what are we to do? Memory is not just a Way of Knowing, it is how we store our knowledge. Without Memory, it does not matter how much knowledge we can gain, because we will not be able to recall it. But the truth is, though it may fail us, memory is usually very accurate. It might not be perfect, but every Way of Knowing has its own inaccuracies. Besides, changes in memory are usually only produced in memories with which we have a deep emotional connection.

To sum up, though memory does have inaccuracies, it is mostly reliable.



Remember That? No You Don’t. Study Shows False Memories Afflict Us All

To what extent can science allow intution in the knowledge that we acquire?

It is true that science is a very importante part of knowledge and in fact we can distinguir between natural and human sciences to adoptó different types of knowledge.

What some philosophers ask themselves is to what extent can the ways of knowing be used in the sciences and if the can, how are they use to adopt the biggest amount of knowledge.

Natural sciences are based in experiments and physical project to prove that things take place in a certain way and based on a reason but to what extent can we use intuitiva in this case.

Intuition comes to mind when a problem occurs and inmediately our brain works a way to salve the problem or at least make it better. Sciences sometimes project this problems in the way of knowledge question, incorrecto formula or theorem and here is where the área of intuitiva comes in time.

Intuitiva leads to a hole range of irrational solutions in order to salve the question without making use of the reason. Intuition is also used in times where the scientist has no more ideas to link the question to and find a better outcome by a simple solution presented by intuition.

In order to understand completely the ways sciences work no matter if toses rae natural or human, intuitiva must be used closely and the area will lead to a better solution and therefore a better knowledge acquisition.



To what extent is ethically justified to think that some lives have more value than others?

We all tend to think that the lives of murders, terrorists, rapists… have less value than the life of any of us. But we don’t only think that the lives of these people are less valued also African people, poor people…

This can be shown in the news: when the Ebola started to panic us was when an American died of it, but before his death there had been a lot of deaths but as they were in Africa it didn´t matter. This virus was discovered in 1976 and it wasn´t until 2014 when we started to worry about it. The vaccine was declared to be effective in 2015, if we had worried about it earlier a lot of deaths would have been saved.

This is one example, but there are a lot of them.

Therefore we can say that we put values on people´s lives, but this doesn´t mean that lives have different values. All human lives have the same value. If we think that there are lives that have less value than others then, none of the lives have any value.

In conclusion, we should try to change our minds and start thinking that all lives have the same importance, as they are all the same the rest doesn’t matter.

is it possible to feel an emotion through imagination?

A clear example of people who feels through imagination are actors and actresses. In order to make a good portrayal, they should totally feel what their character is feeling.

Is not easy to get to the exact emotion, as it is fake. Not everyone has the same degree of imagination facilities, or are equally sensitive. But with training, the level of imagination skills and senses can change.

In order to get to any feeling, for example, sadness, you have to imagine a sad and not real situation. Imagine you have just lost a close family member. You should take your time to analyze and truly belive that that had happened. It is quite difficult to lie to yourself as you know that is not real. But in conclusion, I think that with practice and time, through imagination is totally possible to feel any emotion.

To what extent is ethical to kill terrorists?

toAs we have been watching on the news, when either the army or policemen see a terrorist the first thing they do if they get the chance is to kill them. In this case, there could be to thoughts. one is that as they have killed people they should be killed as well, as it is said in the Bible `eye for eye´.

One is that as they have killed people they should be killed as well, as it is said in the Bible `eye for eye´. The murder is justified as the person has killed more people, and if you end his/her life his/her murders would be ended.

But on the other hand, you are killing someone anyway. You are judging that person of killing people but you are doing the same. Also if you kill them, you aren´t having any revenge as you are promoting them.

And here is where the debate starts, what is more ethical to kill or not to kill?

From my point of view, the best would be not to kill them as even if the terrorist has murdered a lot of people, you don´t have any right to kill the terrorist as you are killing one person even if you think it is justified. The more ethical solution would be caught the terrorist, and be imprisonment for life and don´t let the media spread the new so the terrorism would not be promoted.

How do we know whether decisions are a combination of various WoKs ?

In order to make a decision, we have to base our arguments on something. And that something are our memories, perceptions… In overall, all of the WoK we have. The most significants are memory, intuition and imagination.

The most important one is imagination. This WoK is essential when we are going to decide something or make an attempt to do something new. Our brain works towards that idea and imagine what would happen if you choose one way of doing it and another. There will always be a right and a wrong answer for you, but that doesn’t mean that your right option has to be the correct one. Everyone has a different imagination and interacting with  your memory and intuition, you’ll decide what you think is the best.

Judgments also interact with memory in a way in which basically you base most of your arguments on this WoK. In your head, you remind what similar situation you were on and if the experience was good or bad. Because of this, you’re decision will be made.

Last but not least, intuition is also very important.In this factor you will by your own decide if its the appropriate thing for you, if its beneficial, the bad consequences that will affect you if you decide to do it.

A perfect example would be going on a trip. You have to decide whether to do it or not using all the WoK. With memory you would ask yourself, have I ever been there? Do I remember having any friends there?. With imagination you can ask yourself, would I meet new friends?.  And if you use intuition, these are some questions you might ask yourself, Would I have a good time if I go to the theatre?

In my opinion I just chose the most important ones for me, but obviously all the WoK are important at the time of choosing or making a decision. Not only when you are going to make a trip you use the WoK, in your daily life, at any time you use them but you don’t realise you are using them.



Is it ethical to kill someone who has killed?

It has recently  been publushied on the news that the italian police has killed the suspicious from the Berlin attack. 12 people were killed and numerous people were found injured from the attack.

It is true that the person killed was dangerous and could have cause a lot of damage in number of deaths to the population. However, instead of killing him they could have caught him and put him into jail for a long period of time. He has done a horrible crime but in my point of view; no one diserves to be killed.

In conclusión, I don´t think it´s ethical to kill someone who has killed, no matter how many people were killed or if it was a terrible crime. Of course I think those people should go to jail for a long time to learn from their mistakes but nobody in the whole world diserves death.

To what extent does physical activity affect the way we obtain knowledge (especially using memory)?

In Christmas holidays, while I was exercising one morning a question came up to my mind: since the physical and the mental are connected by the body, does any physical activity affect how we gain knowledge?

After checking some reliable sources, comparing it with personal experiences and thinking about it, I realize it definitely does!

Resultado de imagen de cardio

Reynolds, G. (2016). How Exercise Can Help Us Learn. [online] Well. Available at: [Accessed 26 Dec. 2016].

According to a study done in the University of British Columbia, cardio daily exercising boosts the size of the brain area involved in verbal memory and learning (hippocampus). The fact is that apart from all the direct effects it has, exercise improves mood and sleep and reduces stress and anxiety. So basically, exercising improves indirect conditions which are essential to ameliorate the ability to obtain new information.

Not only does this experiment prove the statement, but my personal experience does too. I try to exercise almost every school day. Even though this takes a lot of time and leaves less than 2 hours to study, that amount of study time is more than enough since it is the most efficient.

Another study that recruited 81 healthy German women reached almost the same conclusion: memorizing while exercising leads to best memorization.

All things considered, I think exercising clearly improves the way we obtain new information, mostly when memory is required, so exercising before studying for an exam is the best way to lean it quickly.



To what extent are some WoK more important than others?

In ToK, there are eight Ways of Knowing (WoK), each of which is used to gain more knowledge. However, there are those who think that some Ways of Knowing are less important than others, since they seem to be simply a combination of already existing WoK. With this being said, how is it possible to know whether some WoK are more important than others?

First, we must find which WoK are considered important, and which ones are not. Without a doubt, sense perception, reason, memory and language are essential. Intuition is also widely accepted. However, emotion, imagination and faith are quite controversial.

Many consider emotion to not be a reliable WoK, since feelings are subjective and do not seem to bring objective knowledge. But emotion is actually necessary to gain knowledge. One can only get so far using reason alone in areas such as Ethics. In Ethics, we can only feel what is right. This makes emotion a necessary WoK.

Imagination is also highly controversial, as some consider that it is based on memory and cannot stand its ground as its own WoK. However, as Theodule Ribot says, “No one knows how many acts of imagination it took to transform the plough… into what it became after a long series of alterations.” Though, undoubtedly, imagination uses memory, it gives us knowledge that memory alone cannot provide. Every invention and scientific discovery has needed imagination at some point, which makes it an essential WoK.

As for faith, we need only look at Aristotle’s definition of knowledge as a “justified, true BELIEF” to find our answer. Knowledge is always a belief. If we do not believe in our knowledge, we cannot truly know it. Therefore, faith is an indispensable WoK.

In conclusion, though at first glance some WoK may appear more important than others, they are all equally important and provide us different types of knowledge.


Bryan-Zaykov, C. & Thomas, G. (2016). Theory of knowledge (2nd ed., pp. 1-66). London: Pearson.