# To what extent is the Golden ratio used in the Arts?

The golden ratio is a number represented by the Greek letter “phi” that is formed when a line is divided into two parts, so that the smaller part divided by the longer part is equal to the entire length of the line divided by the longer part. Its represented as such:

a/b = (a+b)/a = 1.6180339887498948420 …

the Fibonacci sequence, discovered by Leonardo of Pisa, is directly linked to the Golden ratio. This is because when you calculate the ratio of two successive Fibonacci numbers the result gets closer to the Golden ratio. As the numbers grow, the result gets closer to 1.618.

This number can be applied into the composition of a rectangle, creating a shape called the Golden rectangle. It has been proven that humans have a psychological reaction towards this geometric form as it transmits visual satisfaction, for this reason it has been used in several works of art throughout the centuries.

Artists like Leonardo da Vinci have used the golden ratio to correctly place the compositions of the human figure within a portrait, in order to study the relationship between the anatomy and the mathematical geometry of the human body.

“Many books claim that if a rectangle is drawn around the face of the Louvre ‘Mona Lisa’, the ratio of the height to width of that rectangle is equal to the ‘Golden Ratio’.” http://monalisa.org/2012/09/12/leonardo-and-mathematics-in-his-paintings/

This shows us a direct link between the arts and mathematics. That geometry is not only applied to virtual shapes but also esthetic and symbolic arts, aside from paintings we can witness it also in architecture and sculpture.

http://www.livescience.com/37704-phi-golden-ratio.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio

# HOW CAN WE DEFINE THE TERM “ARTIST”?

Here we will look to see the traits and characteristics that artists have in order to find out why they are artists. First the significance that comes with being an artist, to further understand what it is to be one. It is a question that has troubled philosophers and sociologist throughout the ages as artists have constantly redefined the reasons and the ways they do things or even the ways they see themselves as a manner of public influence. “An artist is someone who produces things that people don’t need to have but that he – for some reason – thinks it would be a good idea to give them.” This is a quote from the famous Pop artist Andy Warhol. In this quote, he tells us that it is not only the product of the artist not need but it is also craved by other people. However, this a very limited definition, as there might be a case where someone does need art for psychological purposes, satisfaction, or even reputational purposes.

Sometimes an individual doesn’t produce art for public view, Van Gogh for example made a vague attempt to show a small portion of his art but still kept most of it for himself, thus having only sold one painting in his lifetime. Did it make him less of an artist? Nowadays he is one of the world’s most famous artists, but in his time, he was hardly considered one, reaching the conclusion that an artist also doesn’t need to display his art to a public in order to be considered one. Even when it comes to performance art, it doesn’t always require an audience, however it is custom to have one.

An artist can label himself after his profession deducing himself to the fact that he sells his art to the public to make a living, and so he would be an artist by profession. However, is it necessary to meet a certain standard of skill before you are considered an artist? By this it refers to the fact that the art must be good or appealing to its audience, and whether the audience must gain knowledge from the art so that the artist work is accomplished. We can’t label an artist by certain functional characteristics, aside from the obvious or vague answer that it is someone who creates something, but to what function, in what context, to what intention, all these factors have to be taken into consideration. It only the artist himself can determine whether he is one or not, a scientist could consider himself an artist, a cook, a gardener even, because all of these people create according to what they wish to accomplish, and that’s how the artists acknowledges his status.

http://scottberkun.com/2010/why-you-are-not-an-artist/

https://www.quora.com/What-makes-something-someone-art-or-an-artist

# TO WHAT EXTENT CAN WE PROVE THE EXISTANCE OF GOD?

Muslims, jews and Christians have several things in common, since one faith is a theological evolution from the other, and so they share the same belief that is the existance of a superior being among everything. For the christians its God, for the jews  its Yave and for the muslims its Allah. Of course then each religion has its own set of rules, culture etc. The definition of the word God is an omnipotent being which governs over all things and forces in the universe. This is a very basic definition that doesn’t cover all  the aspects of religion itself but does reflect the constitution of god as an entity, rather than a religious concept to keep an abstract vision of what it means.

Depending on your point of view you could argue that the existance of a God is an excuse to explain the scientific randomness that comes with the nature of the universe or even the very nature of life itself.

Our planet for example is succeptible to such things as natural disasters (earthquakes), physical forces (gravity), or even the very genetics in living organisms, these are very specific examples of the amplitude that comes with scientific knowledge that several humans have studied and stated as facts. These are rules in which reality its natural order are depicted on are based on solid facts that we as humans have gained as knowledge on our own and there is no such thing as a god that has created our reality that we witness every day of our lives.

On the other hand it could be argued that instead of God being a outcome of science, science would be an outcome of God. In the sense that God himself, a being of full omnipotence wrote the code that created or in a more modern sense ‘programmed’ the universe. We can purely base these ideologies on the teachings of profets and theologists that have come to accord with the historical references and teachings from different religious documents (the bible, the coran etc…), they provide for us information that proves the existance of God an deliver input into the creation of life and forces around us.

These religious documents can be portayed as parables that explain the works of god in a much simpler and more understandable manor, as most of these document were written centuries ago. Nowadays we know that the earth for example was formed over billions of years, and so were lifeforms. But how did this come to be? What made these elements come together to form our reality? Are our lives fated, and do we really have control over what we do, or does God simply state free will as an illusion? These are questions that no one can answer making them base themselves purely on what each individual thinks and believes in.

# HOW DOES FILM AND TELEVISION INFLUENCE PEOPLE’S BEHAVIOUR?

Films and TV are everpresent in our lives whether we have an electronic devise with a screen at home or not it is still present in streets, supermarkets, bars etc. However a simple glimpse at a cooking show won’t teach you how to make a cake, this is why people aren’t more worried about what they watch and what they don’t. This is usually a problem adressed with the youngest among us, specially from the ages of 3 to 8 were their brains are like spongesand they are constantly absorbing information from what they see, feel, smell, hear etc.

Children are the ones most exposed to the influences of television  and film as studies have shown that children who witness violence on screen constantly for example show more agression than those who don’t. Same way that some kids want to be superheroes or princesses or monsters  or adventurous all acording to what they like to watch on TV, i even remember playing pretend power rangers with the other kids at school.

Watching these allows us to forget the real world and look deeply into the stories it tells us like we are there and at times we might feel shock, nervousness for the characters, displaying emotions according to the images we percieve, and although at the end when you finish watching it you think “well it was just a movie”, it wasn’t, it was the door that allowed you to escape reality for the period of it lasted. When you see all those cliches in the story, like a Romantic kiss in the rain, or a american high school prom were something goes horribly wrong, a hero coming to save the princess in the last second, we secretly want those things for us in the real world but we can’t have those cliches we want so much, and so we let others do it for us in the form of a visual story.

# How do logo colours affect consumer habits?

Colour itself is reliant on personal experiences and memories, we are capable to perceive it this way because we make connections between what we see and what we know, this is why it’s hard to attribute colours to specific feelings or emotions known to the brain.

There are however more expanded messaging patterns within the perceptions of colour, through what we can analyse the impact of colour in marketing. There has been found a corrolation between certain emotional attitudes and the different visual design colours in company logotypes. what is the first thing you think of when you see an apple logo or the macdonalds sign? immidiately you relate a thought to the symbol itself, like technology, innovation for apple and quick, easy, junk food for macdonalds.

These are the types of things that companies and businesses spend a large amount of time and money because the design and portrayal of that logo gives you the very first impression of the product or service you are buying. There have been studies that categorize different colours to the feelings or habits of the consumers into groups called the Dimensions of brand personality:

• Blue logos invoked feelings of confidence, success and reliability
• Green logos invoked perceptions of environmental friendliness, toughness, durability, masculinity and sustainability
• Purple logos invoked femininity, glamor and charm
• Pink logos gave the perception of youth, imagination and fashion
• Yellow logos invoked perceptions of fun and modernity
• Red logos brought feelings of expertise and self-assurance

These bullet point were obtained from:

https://designshack.net/articles/graphics/the-science-behind-color-and-emotion/

# What is Theoy Of Knowledge ?

As one of the core IB subjects, Theory Of Knowledge represents an educational ideology of the tools needed to fully complete the baccalaureate course. These tools will not only be a prigmative school memory but those teaching will be used as a constant refference throughout life.

It’s important we understand what this subject forms an inmense corrolation between all subject matters and the different areas of knowledge. it is a way of studiyng the concept of knowledge by elaborating upon the theories and studies of many philosophers, scientists and mathematicians throughout the centuries. There is no stright foward concept of knowledge as it can be defined or approached in many different ways.

Theory of knowledge together with CAS and the extended essay form the 3 core subjects needed to get the IB diploma. These are a necessary part of the couurse but count as only 3 points as a total. This is not because they are not important, on the contrary, it is because their level of significance is higher that the IB organisation decided to reduce their point value in order to reduce the preassure of getting good grades and still have pupils concentrating on their other subjects.