To what extent can a cultural and social context have an influence on the comprehension of a text?


As students we tend to work and study with a whole range of different texts. This might vary depending on the subject, topic and even language in which it is written. During the Spanish A classes, we normally have to read certain books, analyse them and with the information that we take out, we either have to write a creative essay or a piece of writing like an article.


In order to analyse this text, the reader must take into account the cultural and social content. Meaning where the text we written, when for example the year and the history periods, and the social issues that up come the author for example if he was Spanish and wrote about the civil war 10 years ago or 70 year ago because the meaning of the text will be different and the analysis will give different information.


A clear example can be seen in text and books from Shakespeare. Othello, Hamlet or Romeo and Juliet were written in the XV century by and English author who had certain social an political ideas, for example being against the royalty.


If we change the context of this to another country saying Japan, that is was written 20 years ago and instead of a men by a woman, the text as much as it will be a good one, would not express the same.


Language helps to understand this but we can see that when talking about knowledge, language is just a method to share information through patterns in a simple way but it does include the only way to share knowledge.


Indeed, social and cultural references take an important part in the understanding books because in more occasions that we think, the author bases his ideas into was is happening in the current days or basing his statements into pasts history situations like a war, a victory or a royalty succession.


To what extent is mathematics discovered by the human being?


According to several mathematicians, philosophers and teachers maths is everywhere. We can find it in daily situations like going to buy a product or in more depth Jobs such as creating an engineering machine.

Wether it solves internal or external problems. Maths allows us to investigate problems containing numbers and the relations between them following patterns and several ways of knowing, not to say all of them.

These types of problems abroad from issues that are purely about matter within natural sciences for example calculating the speed of a car at a certain point or application problems which include how the problems is going to be solve applying different resources.

Many mathematicians argue that the area of mathematics has been discovered thought the centuries and therefore the human being is responsible for solving any kind of problems that maths have.

On the other hand, this affirmation is argued by other mathematicians that respond that maths is linked to the nature and the universe and therefore is not created but yet discovered through the people. In fact, if this second conclusion was not true how could we explain the idea of infinite, the sequences between prime numbers or going further the geometry species found in the universe like the slightly sphere that represents the Earth or the calculations applied to design a balance building.

An example of this could be that through out the pure mathematics, meaning the abstract recesses of the subject, these give very useful techniques for solving problems with maths application whether is for a natural sciences or a life´s situation.

To conclude, we could agree that Plato´s and other philosophers where right and therefore respond that mathematics is outside in the universe but including other views such as that somehow the subjects is built through social reasoning and both ideas are link together to create a structural feature for this area.


  • Ib Tok guide
  • Ib Tok reference Book

To what extent does imagination take a paper in the natural sciences?


Natural sciences are catalogued as a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on observational and empirical evidence.

When we study natural sciences, just by revising note or experimenting a lot of ways of knowing start to come up. For instance, in order to predict a solution for a problem we will use memory, sense perception and probably intuition.

All of this ways will help the scientist or students to investigate and explore new areas that without them might not even have thought of them. On the other hand there so many ways of knowing that are sure to not be as useful in this case like imagination.

A lot of researchers have stated that imagination is used for personal situations like when the subject is thinking about future projects or things they will like to do but on the other side, a lot of scientists, reporters and even philosophers have studied that without imagination a lot of the science we know such as chemical and physical theories would not exist.

For instance, if Columbus did not think about they the Earth was as a simple imagination or Newton did not plan in his head why and Apple felt from a tree, we would not know half of the things we have learned from this theories and states.

It is true that imagination is not the basis for an experiment or neither to find the solution to an equation but without it, it will be quite difficult to get to know how the natural environment behave and therefore learn it as we have been doing for the past centuries.

Bibliography and sources of information: 

How can a good leader use the different ways of knowing for effective communication and interaction with employees?


When talking about business and the parts that involves, we can find that a very important section is related to human resources and everything that involves it from the management, communication, motivation and the types of leadership that a business might decide to use.

During this last evaluation we have covered the topic related to employees and employers and therefore have seen that mangers and leaders are key to perform and have a successful business profit where it is finance or ethical rewards.

Some of the latest articles and websites reveal that leaders relay a lot on different ways of knowing in order to show other employees how to perform and act seriously and effectively in every single moment.

For example, leaders have to make sure that they are emotional and therefore think about how to explain things and how this might affects the employees. They also relay on language as depending on it, they might be ordering different things and dividing the employees into different levels of hierarchy.

As another way, the also tend to have faith within their employees because a lot of times they have to leave them do thing alone and take the risk in order to developed new ideas and find new resources.

As great leaders, they are also allowed to use intuition and show to their lowers how to solve an issue with simple ideas instead of having to innovate and think from the beginning because business have to know how and where to respond at any time.

On the other hand, it could be discuss that there are various ways of knowing that are not as important another such as sense perceptions or even memory, but the fact is that every single way of knowing is linked one to another in some way an therefore all of them are used by leaders to help their employees and guide them into the right direction.

Sometimes when you ask a leader about all of this ways, they might note even think about them when they work but they are always presents and everyone has a tendency to either use one more than another. This is simply because our rational tends to work better fro example with intuition where as for another person, the memory might be a better option and therefore developed new ideas these way.

Bibliography and sources of information: 

To what extent is a business consider an art or a science?


During this year I have started a new subject called Business Management based on the role of business and the basic functions of itself like human resources, finance and accounts, marketing and operations management.

In order to catalogue this subject as an art or a science it is important to mentioned the different between these two concepts. Both of them are consider main areas of knowledge, meaning that through them we can obtain real information that can help us to understand new ideas.

The arts are consider a type of a quality, production, expression, or realm, according to aesthetic principles, of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance.

On the other hand, the sciences are consider branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws like mathematics or physics formulas.


A business is usually defined as a occupation, job or enterprise that purchases sales of good and services in order to make a profit.

As we can see from the definition of what a science a business will certainly be a science because studies a series of facts and truths that systematically arranged such as the behaviour of leaders, managers, outputs or inputs and so on..

A counter argument that could demonstrate that business is not consider a science is that in some occasion, business men use this method to sell or buy within using methods that could be seen as art.

In this case, the business will be standing for a form of quality production that is expressed through certain beautiful patterns and in some cases people agree that business are considered a form of type.

As a conclusion, I agree that business are a form of science because the area that studies facts and concepts is bigger and much more efficient and important that the area that explores the patters and the artistic part.


Sources of reference:

  • Arts as a way of knowing in the presentation
  • Business Management Ib guide

Does art have to have a meaning or is not neccesary?


As we have seen through the course of the year, arts stand for an important area of knowledge that is in many cases misunderstood or overrated.

This is definitely due to the lack of knowledge within this area, as many people do not quite comprehend why the arts exist and therefore what we are supposed to learn from it.

The arts are difficult to interpret and define as in many of the occasion is the audience who decides where a product or an object is consider a piece of art, craft or merely rubbish.

To be able to understand the meanings that the arts can offer us it’s important to explore different examples.

When we talk about a famous painting like The Mona Lisa we can observe that this portrait is expressing certain type of knowledge as much as it is with a connotative or denotative meaning. So we can certainly agree that arts show meaning through the colours, shadows and perspective of the drawing.


Another example that follows this same pattern could be a statue but in this case a less famous one like the statue of Zeus at Olympia. In this case, this piece of art is demonstrating the public certain meaning with the gesture, the colours and the way the marble is treated.


As well as the painting, both pieces show a meaning and therefore it will be reliable to say that all types of art show at least some information that can be expressed as a way of meaning and therefore knowledge in the area.

And for the implications of this knowledge question it could be argued that some pieces of arts might not have a certain meaning but going through the major blocks, we can see that a meaning is always affecting and therefore showing some knowledge.

Bibliography or sources of information: 



To what extent can we consider a craft a piece of art?



On the past lessons is Tok class we have been talking about the different areas of knowledge and how these different areas work within their scope and applications, its key concepts, the methodology, the key historical development and the links to personal knowledge.

From those first classes I have been asking myself to what extent or at least how can we exactly know what is consider or not a part of an art as in our daily life’s we often consider so many things as a piece of art and is not always the same.

To be able to answer this questions I have been investigating the main concepts of art, knowledge and crafts to be able to understand how this functions actually work and therefore see if the crafts transmit certain amount of knowledge or at least express something that could change the world or change us as human beings.

The arts can be tricky because there is huge disagreement about what constitutes ‘proper’ art. To some people, almost anything can be art; to others, there are strict rules that need to be adhered to. The Oxford English Dictionary says that these are the main definitions for art:

  • The expression of creative skill through a visual medium such as painting or sculpture.
  • The product of such a process; paintings, drawings, and sculpture collectively.
  • The various branches of creative activity, such as painting, music, and drama.
  • Subjects of study primarily concerned with human culture (as contrasted with scientific or technical subjects).

Knowledge in this case is also quite difficult to define but referring to the arts and the knowledge expressed these are some of the definitions I have found:

Knowledge Art is not a set of techniques or a theory. It more refers to a phenomenon and a potential – something that emerges from particular practices. It involves seeing a problem from multiple perspectives; enabling a kind of multidimensional seeing; matching the representational and dialogic needs of a group at particular moments; expressing, holding, and interrelating multiple meanings; aggregating elements and relationships over time, and enabling insight at any level, time, or slice.

From these definitions and the help of this video,  I assumed that art is definitely an area of knowledge as it express some sort of information which has as an exclusive objective to be express, learn of inform in some way. Some of the crafts we see around the world usually express some time of knowledge from the author, the material or even the methodology used to bringing together and in that way, this will be consider a piece of art.

On the other hand  the crafts that do not express anything at all or do not inform, cannot be considered a piece of art even though our subconscious thinks it involves some sort of beauty or something that makes it attractive because it won´t be following the knowledge framework establish to comprehend knowledge.




To what extent is data considered a a reliable source from science?


Very recently in class we have been covering a very claimed topic, which is the election of Trump as the new president of the United States. This has offered some polemics because of the data the media is offering about Trump´s inauguration speech and therefore the information’s about his campaigns and future demands.

In the past TOK classes we talked about what the president secretary stated about the media. He stated that all media are lying about the amount people that went to the inauguration speech compared to Obama´s inauguration speech back in 2009.

The secretary demanded that the TV, radio, and internet were lying because of the amount of people going saying that they were less and therefore the data expressed by the scientists was wrong to make Trump´s speech less valuable than Obama´s when he first started.


Researching for this type of reaction, I have found the formulas that scientists use to calculate the number of people in a place through a photo an the amount of space in metres square.


This revealed that the amount that went were less than  half of the amount that Obama´s speech had. But the real deal is, how can we exactly know if the data is as reliable as we think.

Human and natural sciences usually are based on data taken by scientist and prepared professionals that through the years have been developing new ideas and methods to be as specific as possible so even if is thought that data can help to rig a situation it is true to say that data is on of the most reliable source that we can use to verify and believe that something took that place and happened in that specific way.

Sciences are all based in information extracted by profesional and as part of an área of knowing, we can always suggest different opiniones and new ways of researching but if we do not trust in data that is particulay the most specific information how is it posible to learn the apropiates lessons.

Is internet censorship ethically beneficial to society?

This is clearly a very open questions as we can direcet it thourgh many different patas. As it is known, internet is a continuos source of information and therefore a net to navégate whenever and where we want.

The censorships of certain webpages ussually has to do with inappropiate information such as data that is not relevante to our research and information that has not been search but just put in there as a virus connection.

Tri statement opens to varios people as some of them might opined that censorship is correct for children and therefore it allows to help people to not get phisological harmed by images that are distressing to view.

On the other hand, there is some people that might disagree with this gesture and therefore think that all ideas should be expressed and what a better form to do it than in a social space where evryone can look itv no resctriction.

People opines that censoship gives less oportunities and less rights to express ouselves and what we want to share with the rest os the world.

I will believe that the censoship of some material is absolutely benefician specially in children bu everyone else and I will not agree in with the debate that is not benefician as there are so many websites nowadays where the infomation is not apropiase and not cataloguized as a sharing knowledge discussion.

In sumará, all the censoship is not completely good and benefician but it will be agree that what is frobidden is for a good and always thinking in the knowledge and ethics that that data is giving out.

Is emotion, reason or faith a stronger way of knowing personally in relations with refugees?

Now a days a big issue that ou world suffers is the amount of refugees moving around the countries looking for protection and trying to survive with the less that they have in very dangerous situations.

One of the best documentar work that journalist and new reporteros are doing is to try and speak with the little ones like children betwenn five and fourteen years old who start very slighty to understand the situation their family is living.

All od  this workers have started to interview in a very interaactive way the children by enphasithing with them and creating a relationship based on the loyalty and the trust.

From there, we can ask ourselves if that way is possibily helping those children to overcome their traumas and threfore be happy and save or is this manner a way to make them feel worst and closing the few chances that they have to speak out los and express their feelings.

During this interview and chats, repórters have suggested that some ways of knowing are better to introduce a persona and become more fluently when speaken but is it true that emoción, reason and faith help?

I will say that in all the knowledge that we adquiere, even if we come from a very dangerus situation is welcome in any form. What is meant by this is that all the ways of knowing colaborase in some way to explore the knowledge and therefore be express.

Emotion, faith and reason are just some of the most useful ones when it comes to talk with children that are victims of situations that do not apply to their normal lijes and that have being move for their protection all over the world losing family member, friends and their personal object.

As a final reflexion I will say that this three ways of knowing do apply in a different mode when talking with refugees and not excepcional with children but with all of them, including adults and even thought all the WOKs are collectively working some of them are more usefull and will help to promote in a better way their improvement throughout time and effort.